Dr Sarah Fox

Senior Lecturer

School of Justice, Security and Sustain

I have worked at a number of universities in the UK and internationally.

Before joining Staffordshire University, the Institute of Policing (IoP) within the School of Law, Policing and Forensics (LPF), I was at the University of East London, where I held the following positions, Acting Head of Law and Criminology (across Law, Policing and Justice/Criminology) and the Director of the Centre of Professional Policing (CoPP). I actually established the CoPP, whilst working with Babcock International (and the other universities in the consortium) on the Metropolitan Police Service (PEQF) programmes. Together with my co-Director, I also launched the Online Harms and Cyber Crime (research) Unit (OHCCU) – at the House of Lords. I was also the Deputy Director for the research Institute for Connected Communities (ICC).

Prior to that, I was at Middlesex University, where I was the lead on developing the policing programmes and was employed as the police researcher for the awarded HEFCE/DADF2 award – which researched the development of apprenticeships across the public sector in London.

Before entering Higher Education, I worked in senior management roles and as a legal and practice consultant and adviser to a number of government departments and advisory boards. My experience (expertise) relates to policing (I was a police officer) transport (roads transport and aviation in the main) and security (both in the UK; Europe and International). I hold numerous professional, management and academic memberships and qualifications across these fields (for example – (CPC) the holder of the ‘O’ licence for road haulage operations; transport manager/adviser, UK and overseas (EU) driver and fleet trainer/adviser, driver education, transport law/policy adviser, etc).

I have also worked in the areas (investigations) of sexual offences and domestic abuse, as well as applying community initiatives. I am very experienced and active in community/stakeholder/partnership engagement/management roles.

In 2019, I established the ‘Tri-Com’ initiative, alongside the ‘Pathways into Policing’ and Community Action: ‘Promoting Partnerships to Problem Solve’ (CAPPs) which was supported by the Metropolitan Police Service and the Mayor of London.

In 2015-16 I was awarded the distinguished Fulbright Commission post-doctoral research scholarship, through the discipline of law, which was also co-supported/funded by Lloyd’s of London. My research professorship, in the USA, related to threats and risks to critical national infrastructures, in particular, my focus related to transport modes and systems.

I continue to be a visiting Professor at DePaul University in the USA.

I am currently a member/expert adviser on a number of (UK/EU) law enforcement bodies, I also sits as a Trustee on the Lloyd’s Tercentenary Research Foundation Board (as of 2017) and remain a Fellow of the University of Liverpool (law). Additionally, I am consultant-adviser to MAVCOM (aviation); a listed expert with the EU/UK Parliament and for a Europol body (transport and police related). I also sit as a member of the International Advisory Committee of the International Commission on Cyber Security Law.

I have made a number of keynote speeches and presentations at various distinguished events, such as the United Nations; Council of Europe and other EU (Europol) sessions/meetings.

I have worked extensively in training and curriculum development both in the UK and overseas (specialising in work-based (professional practice) online and blended delivery methods).

Related to this, I have researched the subject areas of policing and transport and law and developed (innovative) curriculum in line with the changing needs of the various sectors. This also ties into one of my on-going research areas, which considers the professionalism and accountability of the police and the continually developing role and needs of, and for, modern day and future policing needs.

Much of my current research focuses on technology (challenges and opportunities) and society; including transport modes and autonomous systems – such as drones (UAV’s) transport safety and security (road and air) space use; cyber perpetration and penetration and evolution/revolution (societal acceptance).

This encompasses:
- policing in a new technological age; safety and security; and terrorism risk factors; cross border movement (monitoring and enforcement); and, the lack of governance and coordination to adequately prevent, protect, pursue and respond in today’s modern (cyber) world.

My research also reasons in conflicts and paradoxes – for example, between ‘human rights and security,’ and ‘opportunities and challenges’, where, on the one hand, there remains, (including through the cyberspace) the opportunity to collaborate and coordinate with relative ease, yet, on the other hand, there remains limitation set by man-made boundaries. 

Professional memberships and activities

Fulbright post-doctoral professorial scholar (2015-2016)

• Board Member of the International Advisory Committee of the International Commission on Cyber Security Law
• Member - Lloyd’s of London – LTRF Trustee (Research-Charity)
• Malaysian Aviation Commission (MAVCOM) – adviser
• Vice-President - Institute of Driver Education Research (IDER)
• Director – Online Harms and Cyber Crime Unit (OHCCU)
• Adviser to UK (Select) and EU Parliaments – Transport (movement)

Memberships to Professional bodies

FCMI – Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute
FCILT – Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport
MCIHT – Member of the Chartered Institution of Highways & Transportation
MEALA – European Aviation Law Association
EU – Air and Seaports (Policing)
Fellow – Royal Society of Arts
Fellow of the University of Liverpool (Law)
Member of the Institute of Transport Managers
Member College of Policing – Full Police Membership
SLS – Society of Legal Scholars (member)
Member of the Society of Evidence Based Policing (SEBP)

External Examiner roles:
• Institute of Risk Managers: Principal Examiner 2015-2018
• University of South Wales: 2016-17 (pre-apprenticeship programme: aviation)
• Wrexham University: 2018-20xx (Policing Programmes)

Expertise

  • Transport law and policy
  • Roads Policing (extensive: including – safer/secure roads, driver training, offences, intelligent solutions, etc.)
  • Movements across borders/boundaries
  • Autonomous vehicles – including UAV’s
  • Aviation Law and Policies (including UAV’s)
  • Safety, security and (counter) terrorism
  • EU Law
  • Criminal Law
  • Policing (technology, digital policing, social acceptance, contemporary challenges and development of the profession and professional standards)

My current research focuses on technology (challenges and opportunities) and society; including transport modes and autonomous systems – such as drones (UAV’s); aviation; space use; cyber perpetration and penetration and evolution/revolution (societal acceptance).

This encompasses:
Policing in a new technological age; safety and security; and terrorism risk factors; cross border movement (monitoring and enforcement); and the lack of governance and coordination to adequately prevent, protect, pursue and respond in today’s modern (cyber) world.
My research also reasons in conflicts and paradoxes – for example, between ‘human rights and security,’ and ‘opportunities and challenges’, where, on the one hand, there remains, (including through the cyberspace) the opportunity to collaborate and coordinate with relative ease, yet, on the other hand, there remains limitation set by man-made boundaries.

Research interests

  • Serious and organised crime
  • Police culture and practice
  • Police officer welfare
  • Interagency working
  • Policing and social media
  • Missing Persons
  • Training and development of staff
  • Maritime movements (security) and offences (Shipping Interdictions and Laws of the Sea)

Enterprise and commercial interests

I have extensive experience of working with both UK and International partners within a HE and in a consultancy setting. I have developed curriculum and written extensive material for industry and educational purposes.

I have undertaken consultancy (research) projects across my research expertise/interests which relate to transport/movements (across most modes but specialising in road/air and autonomous systems – including UAV’s) policing and the law/policy.

Projects: Intelligent transport systems; transport and enforcement/management; sustainable and efficient/effective transport solutions; safe, secure and dependable transport; aviation and drone (UAV framework – risk – safety and security); Aviation Connectivity (UK, EU and International); (police) driver training and safety (including for emergency services) comparison of policing and fire service models/modelling (see publications and commissioned criminal justice publications) and management in organisations (including change management and risk management):
Funding achieved: circa - 3 million.

Publications

Journal Papers

  • Fox, S. J. (2011) ‘Following carbon footprints.’ FOCUS (CILT). Vol. 13. 11.
  • Fox, S. J. (2014) ‘Safety & Security: The influence of 9/11 to the EU Framework.’ Research in Transportation Economics – Special Edition DOI: 10.1016/j.retrec.2014.07.004 Vol. 45 (2014), pp. 24–33
  • Fox, S. J. (2014) The evolution of aviation: In times of war and peace – blood tears and salvation! 
International Journal on World Peace (2014) Vol. XXXI No. 4 Dec. pp. 49-79
  • Fox, S. J. (2015) ‘CONTEST’ing Chicago. Origins and Reflections: Lest we forget! International Journal of Private Law, (2015) Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 73-98
  • Fox, S. J. (2015) ‘To practice justice and right’ – international aviation liability: have lessons been learnt? International Journal of Public Law and Policy, (2015) Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 162-182. DOI: 10.1504/1JPLAP.2015.071027
  • Fox, S. J. & Ismail, R., (2016) ASEAN Open Skies – Aviation Development in 2015: ‘Blue or cloudy skies? Annals of Air and Space Law. Vol. XL. Pp. 607-654
  • Fox, S. J. (2016) Single European Skies: functional airspace blocks: Delays and Responses. Air and Space Law. Vol. 41, no. 3 (2016): 201-228
  • Fox, S. (2016) Aligning (EU) Policies: A flying reform in Higher Education - The development of aviation professionals. International Journal of Aviation Management, Vol. 3, No. 1. 2016
  • Fox, S. J. (2016) SPACE: The race for mineral rights. ‘The sky is no longer the limit.’ Lessons from Earth. Resources Policy (2016) Vol. 49, September 2016, Pages 165-178.
  • Fox, S. J. (2016) Flying challenges for the future: Aviation preparedness – in the face of cyber-terrorism. Journal of Transportation Security. (Part delivered to UN – see below): First published online Sept. 2016. December 2016, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 191–218.
  • Fox, S. J. (2016) BREXIT: A bolt from the blue! – Red sky in the morning? Issues in Aviation Law and Policy. Volume 16, No. 1. Autumn, 2016, pp 83-119.
  • Fox, S. J. (2016) Green and level playing fields: A paradox of virtues. DUMPING – Anti-competitiveness. Int. J. Public Law and Policy, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2016, 333-367
  • Fox, S. J. & Ismail, R (2017) The skies the limit! – Open Skies with limitations. European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance. Vol. 4, 2017, 7-42
  • Fox, S. J. & Ismail, R (2017) The skies the limit! Collaborating to open the skies with China – Challenges and opportunities. European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance – 4 (2017) pp 387-422
  • Fox, S. J. (2017) THE RISE OF THE DRONES: Framework and Governance – Why risk it! 82 J. Air L. & Com. 683-715
  • Fox, S. J. (2017) Borderless skies! Sovereign dominance, Regionalism: Lessons from Europe. IJWP, Vol. XXXIV, No. 4 (2017) pp 9-41
  • Fox, S. J. (2017) “Mobility and Movement Are ‘Our’ Fundamental Rights”. . . Safety & Security – Risk, Choice & Conflict! Issues in Aviation Law and Policy. Volume 17 No. 1. Autumn, 2017, pp 7-43• Fox, S. J. (2018) Policing - the technological revolution: Opportunities & Challenges! ….. Technology in Societyhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2018.09.006 (online). Printed in Technology in Society 56 (2019) 69-78. (Linked to presentation at the UN – March 2018)
  • Fox, S. J. (2019) POLICING: MONITORING, INVESTIGATING and PROSECUTING: Drones. European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance 6 (2019) 1-57
  • Fox, S. J. (2019) Policing aviation and keeping peace: intelligence-fed security. International Journal on World Peace. Vol. XXXVI, No.1 (March - 2019) pp. 63-92
  • Fox, S. J. (2019) Positioning the Drone: Policing the Risky Skies, Issues in Aviation Law and Policy. Volume 18, Issue 2. Pp 295-332.
  • Fox, S. J. & Martín-Domingo, L. (2019) EU Enforcement Mechanisms: Passenger Rights EC Regulation 261/2004. Annals of Air and Space Law. XLIII pp. 167-202
  • Fox, S. J. (2019/2020) Policing Mining: in outer-space Greed and Domination vs. Peace and Equity A governance for humanity! Resources Policy 64 101517 (online – viewable at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301420719306701?dgcid=author
  • Fox, S.J. (2020) The ‘risk’ of disruptive technology today (A case study of aviation – Enter the drone), Technology in Society (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101304.
  • Fox, S. J. & Martín-Domingo, L. EU Air Passengers’ Rights Past, Present, and Future: In an Uncertain World (Regulation (EC) 261/2004: Evaluation and Case Study), 85 J. Air L. & Com. (In press: September 2020).
  • Fox, S. J. An ‘obligation’ to provide air travel: In the Covid-19 era (A European perspective) (in press) Issues in Aviation Law and Policy (due to be published Autumn 2020).
  • Fox, S. J. Tracking the position: Global satellite navigations in Europe. Expanding man's understanding ‘GALILEO: 2020!’ Communications Law Vol. 25, No. 4, 2020. 191-208.
  • Fox, S. J. Evolution: Police Cooperation in the EU ……. Positioning the UK: devolution! (in press: spring, 2021)

Press Papers

Internal Press articles 

  • Students support charity's bid to raise awareness of the need to chat https://www.uel.ac.uk/news/2020/01/brew_monday

Published Articles Blue-Line police/criminal justice publications (2004-2008) (Police & Criminal Justice) Commissioned publications:

  • S. J. Fox; ‘United yet still divided’
  • S. J. Fox; ‘To Protect and Serve’
  • S. J. Fox; ‘Hold the front page’
  • S. J. Fox; ‘Fact or fiction’


NOTE: Commissioned publications (other)
Springer group and Etrasa: Numerous legal (Roads Traffic / driver training) and educational / material, textbooks and test papers etc.
• Approx. 8-10 publications: 2003-2009


Book contributor / chapters

Fox, S. J. (2016) Legal Risk Management, Governance and Compliance. Globe Law and Business
(Transport related)
Fox, S. J. (in press) - Future Trends: Preventative Security. Edward Elgar Law/Legal Reference Series

 

Expert Panel events/presentations:

2008-2015

  • S. J. Fox; EU Brussels (DG Transport & Energy Commission) – ‘Road Safety Enforcement in the EU’ (2007)
  • S. J. Fox; The 7th International Forum on Air Transport in Remoter Regions (Newquay – UK) ‘Environment and Sustainability: Do they matter to air services to the Orkney Islands?’ (2011) http://www.flickr.com/photos/scooterjohn/5609270725/
  • S. J. Fox; ‘Legislative implications (conflict of free movement v. safety/security) with driver licence tourism. The European Transport Conference (ETC) – Oct. 2011.
  • S. J. Fox; International Aviation Conference (Bordeaux) France – Old and New Threats: Blood, tears and salvation! July 2014
  • S. J. Fox; ASEAN: Can lessons be learnt from the EU framework – Malaysia Sept. 2014 (Inaugural conference – first speaker)
  • S.J. Fox; A flying reform in Higher Education: Recognising and developing opportunities across borders. Singapore ATRS July 2015
  • S. J. Fox & R. Ismail: ASEAN – The developments in ASEAN Open-Skies. Singapore ATRS July 2015

2016 (resulting in conference/journal papers)

  • S. J. Fox; Challenges for the future: preparedness! – In the face of cyber-terrorism. Safety, Security and Disasters. WSIS Forum EC Medici Framework. 2-6 May, 2016 – UN, Geneva
  • S. J. Fox: The skies the limit! Collaborating to open the skies with CHINA – Challenges and opportunities. Shanghai International Forum on aviation law, China. 10 May, 2016
  • S. J. Fox: Flying high amongst its competitors? EU Aviation – a paradoxical tale!
    The Future of European Law and Policy: 5th Conference on European Law and Policy in Context. Birmingham University. (June, 2016)
  • ATRS – Rhodes Island, Greece, June 23-26, 2016.
    (World Conference on Transport Research and Air Transport Research Society Conferences)
  • S.J. Fox 'Aviation: metal neutral!' Sovereignty, risk, and protectionism vs. transnationalism, risk, and globalisation – Shanghai, China, 10-15 July 2016. 14th World Conference on Transport Research
  • S.J. Fox & R. Ismail: – The skies the limit – Open Skies with limitations! Shanghai, China, 10-15 July 2016. 14th World Conference on Transport Research

2017 (resulting in conference/journal papers)

  • S. J. Fox: Hacked Off – by the drive for autonomy. Safety, Security and Disasters. WSIS Forum EC Medici Framework. 12-16 June, 2017 – UN, Geneva.

2018 (resulting in conference/journal papers)

  • S. J. Fox: Policing Society: Utilising “cool gadgets and tools.” Safety, Security and Disasters. WSIS Forum EC Medici Framework. 19-23 March, 2018 – UN, Geneva (see above publication).
  • S.J. Fox: Policing challenges in the Cyber and Autonomous era (Cybercrimes: Emerging Trends…… and developing risks). International Conference on Cyberlaw, Cybercrime and Cyber Security. 14–16tth November, 2018 New Delhi, India.
  • S. J. Fox; ‘Cyber governance’ Jurisdiction and Boundaries - Diplomacy? - A question of willing! International Conference on Cyberlaw, Cybercrime and Cyber Security. 14–16tth November, 2018 New Delhi, India.
  • S. J. Fox, Privacy in Cyberspace – A question of Balance? Conference on Cyberlaw, Cybercrime and Cyber Security. 14–16tth November, 2018 New Delhi, India.
    2019 (resulting in conference/journal papers)
  • S. J. Fox; “Albert Einstein to be my pilot” For the greater good - a question of trust! WSIS Forum EC Medici Framework. 8-12 March 2019 – UN, Geneva.
  • S. J. Fox; Policing Challenges (Airports) – Plenary Congress, (Europol) Portugal, 16-17 October, 2019
  • S. J. Fox; Policing the Drone Era – Malta, (Council of Europe) 25-29 November 2019

United Nations discussions (UN, Geneva) – 8-12 March, 2019

  • Road-testing Governance models with the Secretary-General’s model with the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Digital Cooperation
  • Invited discussions to: Growing Global Challenges of Internet Addiction – Impact to the Youth and a Nation

2020 – United Nations

Cyberlaw, Cybercrime & Cybersecurity: Expert Panel and Presentation (challenges in a Covid-19 environment. 13 July 2020

International Conference on Cyberlaw, Cybercrime and Cybersecurity (India)

  • Ava Good Life: Cybercrimes in 2020 – New Avatars and Approaches. 26 November, 2020
  • Goodbye 2020 ….. Hello 2021 - Cyber Attacks Post Advent of Coronavirus – Impact, Challenges & Responses. 27 November, 2020.

 

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