Professor Nachiappan Chockalingam

Professor Of Clinical Biomechanics

Health, Education, Policing and Sciences

As a Chartered Engineer and a Chartered Scientist, my educational background includes a degree in Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering from Annamalai University in India, followed by a Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering Science at the University of Dundee in Scotland. For my doctoral research at Staffordshire University, I conducted gait and posture analysis on patients with scoliosis. After brief medical physics and engineering training at Ninewells Hospital in Dundee, I joined the Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI) in Chennai, India as a Research Fellow. There I established a gait analysis facility and worked as a Scientist in Footwear Biomechanics before joining Staffordshire University in 1998. I have earned fellowships from prestigious professional organisations, including the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine, the International Society of Biomechanics, and an Honorary Fellowship from the Royal College of Podiatry. I am also a Principal Fellow of the Higher Education Academy.

As a Professor of Clinical Biomechanics, I direct the Movement Analysis Laboratory and lead the biomechanics team and research at Staffordshire University. I am also an Affiliate Professor at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta and a Visiting Professor at Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai. In terms of research leadership and management, I am involved with the strategic committees and executive boards of various national and international organisations. Within Staffordshire University, in addition to contributing to committees across the institution, I contribute extensively to the University Research Ethics and Governance process and the activities of the University Professoriate.

I have published over 790 research outputs which includes over 260 full research manuscripts. I am one of the Editors in Chief for “the Foot Journal” and founding Associate Editors of “Footwear Science”. I am also an Associate Editor for “Prosthetics and Orthotics International” and “Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences” and on the editorial board for other journals. I review for numerous journals and grant awarding bodies worldwide. I have received funding from various international bodies including the European Commission, Innovate UK and British Council. I have led a project in collaboration with the World Health Organisation and the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics to support the development of Standards for Prosthetics and Orthotics Service Provision. I currently lead various projects in the areas relating to policy development on orthotics and assistive technology. In addition to my work on Assistive Technology and Gait Analysis, my recent work has focused on the Clinical Assessment and Management of Diabetic Foot Disease.

Professional memberships and activities

  1. Fellow of the Institute for Physics and Engineering in Medicine.
  2. Principal Fellow of the Higher Education Academy
  3. Member of the International Society of Biomechanics.
  4. Member of the British Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (British Orthopaedic Association).
  5. Member of the International Research Society on Spinal Deformities.
  6. Member of the Institution of Engineers (India).
  7. Member of the Indian Society of Biomechanics.
  8. Member of the Footwear Biomechanics Group (International Society of Biomechanics).
  9. Member of the British Scoliosis Society.
  10. Editor in Chief, The Foot.
  11. Associate Editor, Footwear Science.
  12. Associate Editor, Prosthetics and Orthotics International.
  13. Associate Editor, Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences.
  14. Reviewer: ARC, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine, BMC Geriatrics, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, BMC Public Health, British Journal of Health Psychology, British Journal of Sports Medicine, Clinical Anatomy, Clinical Biomechanics, CSO, Scotland (grants), Czech Science Foundation, Diabetes UK, Diabetic Medicine, Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Emergency Medical Journal, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research council (EPSRC), Gait and Posture, HTD Program, IEEE Journal on Imaging, Injury, Industry Driven Research Program, Government of Latvia, International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, IRBM Bio Medical Engineering and Research Journal, Journal of American Podiatric Medical Association, Journal of Biomechanics, Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Leverhulme Trust, Materials & Design, MDPI ( various journals in Diabetes and Rehabilitation medicine), Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, Medical Engineering and Physics, Medical Physics, Medical Research Council (MRC), Medical Science Monitor, Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, Prosthetics and Orthotics International, Publishers: John Weily & Sons, Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, Research Foundation - Flanders (Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - Vlaanderen, FWO), Research Promotion Foundation, Cyprus, Research In Sports Medicine: An International Journal, Royal Society Open Science, Scientific Reports (Nature), Research In Sports Medicine: An International Journal, Sports Biomechanics, The Journal of Sport Rehabilitation.

Academic qualifications

  • BEng., MSc, PhD, CEng, CSci. PFHEA, FIPEM, FISB
  • HCPC Registered Clinical Scientist


My research and academic interests are in the general area of musculoskeletal biomechanics and gait analysis. My special interests are in Assistive Devices and Technology for mobility.

Research interests

I have played a major role in developing and delivering internationally recognised research in human performance measurement with a focus on foot and footwear biomechanics, injury prevention, lower limb musculoskeletal conditions and aetiopathology of scoliosis. I currently have several multi and inter-disciplinary collaborations with leading researchers and industry here in the UK, the EU and beyond.

In the past few years, the biomechanics team here at Staffordshire University has made substantial contributions to evidence-based practice in the areas of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions. We have made seminal contributions to understanding foot complications resulting from diabetes and have also developed research techniques. We have developed a telehealth framework for Allied Health Professions which has been endorsed by all of the professional bodies.

Whilst we continue to focus on international partnerships, the research within the team currently focuses on (1) evidence-based practice (2) innovative design and technology for both athletic and prescription footwear (3) effective lower limb orthotic intervention and (4) aetiopathology of scoliosis.

Enterprise and commercial interests

I am currently involved in several externally funded projects. The infrastructure supporting these activities comprises of a fully equipped laboratory to study the performance of human movement. The biomechanics facility is based at Staffordshire University (Science Centre, Leek Road Campus, Stoke on Trent) and houses technology that can be used to support both Industry and the health services (NHS) in a variety of ways that can be used for product development, proof of concept testing, safety testing, ergonomics and studying assistive technology and human - device interfaces. This laboratory is supported by a staff of internationally renowned researchers and nationally recognised clinicians.

Current activities in the laboratory include:

  • Protocol development for human movement research (These protocols are intended to be used to underpin product development and evaluation, e.g. footwear research and Clinical Gait Analysis).

  • Falls assessment and identifying predictors for falls.

  • Biomechanical Assessment of the Diabetic foot and footwear (Soft tissue biomechanics, Material testing, Product design and Development).

  • Foot/ footwear research (lower limb biomechanics footwear modifications/ orthotic intervention).

  • Sports Biomechanics (Injury prevention and rehabilitation)

  • Medical and Assistive Technology

(Please visit for information on specific projects and activities)


Here’s a selection of peer- reviewed publications in the last two years:

Chatzistergos PE, Gatt A, Formosa C, Sinclair JK, Chockalingam N. Effective and clinically relevant optimisation of cushioning stiffness to maximise the offloading capacity of diabetic footwear. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2023 Sep 22;204:110914. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2023.110914. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37742803.

Eddison N, Healy A, Darke N, Jones M, Leask M, Roberts GL, Chockalingam N. Exploration of the representation of the allied health professions in senior leadership positions in the UK National Health Service. BMJ Lead. 2023 Aug 24:leader-2023-000737. doi: 10.1136/leader-2023-000737. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37620124.

Burnie L, Chockalingam N, Holder A, Claypole T, Kilduff L, Bezodis N. Commercially available pressure sensors for sport and health applications: A comparative review. Foot (Edinb). 2023 Sep;56:102046. doi: 10.1016/j.foot.2023.102046. Epub 2023 Aug 11. PMID: 37597352.

Chatzistergos PE, Kumar S, Sumathi CS, Mahadevan S, Vas P, Chockalingam N. Screening for the loss of protective sensation in people without a history of diabetic foot ulceration: Validation of two simple tests in India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2023 Aug;202:110810. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2023.110810. Epub 2023 Jun 28. PMID: 37391033.

Chatzistergos PE, Eddison N, Ganniari-Papageorgiou E, Chockalingam N. A quantitative analysis of optimum design for rigid ankle foot orthoses: The effect of thickness and reinforcement design on stiffness. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2023 Jun 13. doi: 10.1097/PXR.0000000000000247. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37314325.

Mifsud T, Chatzistergos P, Maganaris C, Chockalingam N, Padhiar N, Stafrace KM, Gatt A. Supersonic shear wave elastography of human tendons is associated with in vivo tendon stiffness over small strains. J Biomech. 2023 Mar 27;152:111558. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2023.111558. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37004390.

Chatzistergos P, E Scott T, Thorburn M, Chockalingam N. Understanding occipital pressure sores in UK military casualties: a pilot study in healthymilitary personnel. BMJ Mil Health. 2023 Feb 1:e002305. doi:10.1136/military-2022-002305. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36725104.

Leone E, Eddison N, Healy A, Royse C, Chockalingam N. Do UK Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) have sufficient guidelines and training to provide telehealth patient consultations? Hum Resour Health. 2022 Dec 5;20(1):82. doi: 10.1186/s12960-022-00778-1. PMID: 36471340; PMCID: PMC9721053.

Eddison N, Scott DA, Pankhurst C, Chockalingam N. The challenge of service planning and development without adequate data: The case for orthotic services. J Eval Clin Pract. 2023 Apr;29(3):525-528. doi: 10.1111/jep.13801. Epub 2022 Nov 26. PMID: 36433887.

Theodorakos I, Healy A, Chatzistergos P, Andersen MS, Chockalingam N. Assessment of the effect of a total contact cast on lower limb kinematics and joint loading. Gait Posture. 2022 Oct;98:203-209. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2022.09.075. Epub 2022 Sep 16. PMID: 36174364.

Chatzistergos PE, Allan D, Chockalingam N, Naemi R. Shore hardness is a more representative measurement of bulk tissue biomechanics than of skin biomechanics. Med Eng Phys. 2022 Jul;105:103816. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2022.103816. Epub 2022 May 7. PMID: 35781381.

Eddison N, Leone E, Healy A, Royse C, Chockalingam N. The potential impact of allied health professional telehealth consultations on health inequities and the- burden of treatment. Int J Equity Health. 2022 Jun 30;21(1):91. doi: 10.1186/s12939-022-01689-2. PMID: 35773695; PMCID: PMC9245876.

Chatzistergos PE, Chockalingam N. An in vivo model for overloading-induced soft tissue injury. Sci Rep. 2022 Apr 11;12(1):6047. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-10011-7. PMID: 35411011; PMCID: PMC9001654.

Ellis S, Branthwaite H, Chockalingam N. Evaluation and optimisation of a footwear assessment tool for use within a clinical environment. J Foot Ankle Res. 2022 Feb 10;15(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s13047-022-00519-6. PMID: 35144665; PMCID: PMC8829975.

Leone E, Eddison N, Healy A, Royse C, Chockalingam N. Exploration of implementation, financial and technical considerations within allied health professional (AHP) telehealth consultation guidance: a scoping review including UK AHP professional bodies' guidance. BMJ Open. 2021 Dec 27;11(12):e055823. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055823. PMID: 34969656; PMCID: PMC8718347.

Abbas ZG, Lutale JK, Formosa C, Gatt A, Chockalingam N. The Charcot Foot: An Emerging Public Health Problem for African Diabetes Patients. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2021 Dec 9:15347346211066684. doi: 10.1177/15347346211066684. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34881679.

Byrne M, Scott TE, Sinclair J, Chockalingam N. COVID-19 and critical care capacity: Can we mitigate demand? Respirology. 2022 Feb;27(2):107-108. doi:10.1111/resp.14193. Epub 2021 Dec 5. PMID: 34865289.

Hill M, Healy A, Chockalingam N. Defining and grouping children's therapeutic footwear and criteria for their prescription: an international expert Delphi consensus study. BMJ Open. 2021 Aug 9;11(8):e051381. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-051381. PMID: 34373314; PMCID: PMC8354267.

Chatzistergos PE, Chockalingam N. A novel concept for low-cost non-electronic detection of overloading in the foot during activities of daily living. R Soc Open Sci. 2021 Jun 9;8(6):202035. doi: 10.1098/rsos.202035. PMID:34113451; PMCID: PMC8188001.

Gatt A, Mercieca C, Borg A, Grech A, Camilleri L, Gatt C, Chockalingam N, Formosa C. Thermal characteristics of rheumatoid feet in remission: Baseline data. PLoS One. 2020 Dec 2;15(12):e0243078. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243078. PMID: 33264346; PMCID: PMC7710052.

Full list of publications (PDF, file size: 557KB) )



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