Professor Nachiappan Chockalingam

Professor Of Clinical Biomechanics

School of Health, Science and Wellbeing

I am a Fellow of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and a Principal Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. I am also a Chartered Engineer and a Chartered Scientist. After completing my Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering degree at Annamalai University, India I received my MSc in Biomedical Engineering Science at the University of Dundee, Scotland. My doctoral thesis at Staffordshire University was on gait and posture analysis of patients with scoliosis. After a short training in Medical Physics and Engineering at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, I joined Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Chennai (Madras) as a Research Fellow where I established a gait analysis facility. I continued at CLRI as a Scientist in Footwear Biomechanics before joining Staffordshire University in 1998.

As Professor of Clinical Biomechanics, I direct the Movement Analysis Laboratory and lead the biomechanics team and research at Staffordshire University. I am also an Affiliate Professor at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta and a Visiting Professor at the Department of Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai. In terms of research leadership and management, I am involved with the strategic committees and executive boards of various national and international organisations. Within Staffordshire University, in addition to contributing to committees across the institution, I contribute extensively to the University Research Ethics and Governance process and the activities of the University Professoriate.

I have published over 700 research outputs which includes over 230 full research manuscripts. I am one of the founding Associate Editors for the journals Scoliosis and Spinal disorders and Footwear Science. I am also an Associate Editor for Prosthetics and Orthotics International and Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences and on the editorial board for other journals such as The Foot. I review for numerous journals and grant awarding bodies worldwide. I have received funding from various international bodies including the European Commission and British Council. I have led a project in collaboration with the World Health Organisation and the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics to support the development of Standards for Prosthetics and Orthotics Service Provision. I currently lead various projects in the areas relating to policy development on orthotics and assistive technology. In addition to my work on Assistive Technology and Gait Analysis, my recent work has focused on the Clinical Assessment and Management of the Diabetic Foot Disease.

Professional memberships and activities

  1. Professional memberships and activities
  2. Fellow of the Institute for Physics and Engineering in Medicine.
  3. Principal Fellow of the Higher Education Academy
  4. Member of International Society of Biomechanics.
  5. Member of the British Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle society (British Orthopaedic Association).
  6. Member of the International Research Society on Spinal deformities.
  7. Member of the Institution of Engineers (India).
  8. Member of the Indian Society of Biomechanics.
  9. Member of the Footwear Biomechanics Group (International Society of Biomechanics).
  10. Member of the British Scoliosis Society.
  11. Associate Editor, Footwear Science.
  12. Associate Editor, Prosthetics and Orthotics International.
  13. Associate Editor, Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences.
  14. Editorial Board, The Foot.
  15. Reviewer: ARC, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine, BMC Geriatrics, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, BMC Public Health, British Journal of Health Psychology, British Journal of Sports Medicine, Clinical Anatomy, Clinical Biomechanics, CSO, Scotland (grants), Czech Science Foundation, Diabetes UK, Diabetic Medicine, Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Emergency Medical Journal, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research council (EPSRC), Gait and Posture, HTD Program, IEEE Journal on Imaging, Injury, Industry Driven Research Program, Government of Latvia, International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, IRBM Bio Medical Engineering and Research Journal, Journal of American Podiatric Medical Association, Journal of Biomechanics, Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Leverhulme Trust, Materials & Design, MDPI ( various journals in Diabetes and Rehabilitation medicine), Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, Medical Engineering and Physics, Medical Physics, Medical Research Council (MRC), Medical Science Monitor, Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, Prosthetics and Orthotics International, Publishers: John Weily & Sons, Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, Research Foundation - Flanders (Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - Vlaanderen, FWO), Research Promotion Foundation, Cyprus, Research In Sports Medicine: An International Journal, Royal Society Open Science, Scientific Reports (Nature), Research In Sports Medicine: An International Journal, Sports Biomechanics, The Journal of Sport Rehabilitation.

Academic qualifications

  • BEng., MSc, PhD, CEng, CSci. PFHEA, FIPEM
  • HCPC Registered Clinical Scientist


My research and academic interests are in the general area of musculoskeletal biomechanics and gait analysis. My special interests are in Assistive Devices and Technology for mobility.

Research interests

I have played a major role in the development and delivery of internationally recognised research in the areas of human performance measurement with a focus on foot and footwear biomechanics, injury prevention, lower limb musculo-skeletal conditions and aetiopathology of scoliosis. I currently have several multi and inter disciplinary collaborations with leading researchers and industry here in the UK, the EU and beyond.

In the past few years, the biomechanics team here at Staffordshire University has made substantial contributions to evidence-based practice in the areas of lower limb musculo-skeletal conditions. One of our flagship projects titled DiaBSmart, focuses on Diabetic Foot Assessment and development of a smart material for use within Diabetic footwear.

Whilst we continue to focus on international partnerships, the research within the team currently focuses on (1) evidence based practice (2) innovative design and technology for both athletic and prescription footwear (3) effective lower limb orthotic intervention and (4) aetiopathology of scoliosis.

Enterprise and commercial interests

I am currently involved in several externally funded projects. The infrastructure supporting these activities comprises of a fully equipped laboratory to study the performance of human movement. The biomechanics facility is based at Staffordshire University (Science Centre, Leek Road Campus, Stoke on Trent) and houses technology that can be used to support both Industry and the health services (NHS) in a variety of ways that can be used for product development, proof of concept testing, safety testing, ergonomics and studying assistive technology and human - device interfaces. This laboratory is supported by a staff of internationally renowned researchers and nationally recognised clinicians.

Current activities in the laboratory include:

  • Protocol development for human movement research (These protocols are intended to be used to underpin product development and evaluation, e.g. footwear research and Clinical Gait Analysis).

  • Falls assessment and identifying predictors for falls.

  • Biomechanical Assessment of the Diabetic foot and footwear (Soft tissue biomechanics, Material testing, Product design and Development).

  • Foot/ footwear research (lower limb biomechanics footwear modifications/ orthotic intervention).

  • Sports Biomechanics (Injury prevention and rehabilitation)

  • Medical and Assistive Technology

(Please visit for information on specific projects and activities)



Level 5 and 6 Biomechanics for Sport and Exercise Science.


Various modules within the Clinical Biomechanics Scheme.


Here’s a selection of peer- reviewed publications and presentations:

  1. Chatzistergos PE, Chockalingam N. (2021) A novel concept for low-cost non-electronic detection of overloading in the foot during activities of daily living. R Soc Open Sci. 2021 Jun 9;8(6):202035. doi: 10.1098/rsos.202035
  2. Hill M, Healy A, Chockalingam N. Defining and grouping children’s therapeutic footwear and criteria for their prescription: an international expert Delphi consensus study. BMJ Open 2021;11:e051381. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-051381.
  3. Leone, Enza, Eddison, Nicola, Healy, Aoife, Royse, Carolyn and Chockalingam, Nachiappan (2021) Exploration of implementation, financial and technical considerations within allied health professional (AHP) telehealth consultation guidance: A scoping review including UK AHP professional bodies’ guidance. BMJ Open. 11(12):e055823. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055823.
  4. Chatzistergos PE, Chockalingam N. (2022) An In-Vivo Model For Overloading-Induced Soft Tissue Injury. in press. Scientific Reports
  5. Nachiappan Chockalingam, Peter H Dangerfield, Giannis Giakas, Tom Cochrane, John C Dorgan (2002) Computer assisted cobb measurement of scoliosis. European Spine Journal 11:353-357. (IF:2.066)
  6. Nachiappan Chockalingam, Giannis Giakas, Anna Iossifidou (2002) Do strain gauge force platforms need in situ correction? Gait and Posture 16: 233-237. (IF:2.752)
  7. Branthwaite HR, Payton C J, Chockalingam N (2004) The effect of simple insoles on three-dimensional foot motion during normal walking. Clinical Biomechanics. 19(9):972-7. (IF:1.970)
  8. Robert Longworth, Nachiappan Chockalingam, A Redmond (2005) An enhanced protocol to reduce error in electromagnetic tracking of the 1st MTPJ. Gait and Posture 23(3):391-4. (IF:2.752)
  9. Bev Bowring and Nachiappan Chockalingam (2009) A Clinical Guideline for the Conservative Management of Tibialis Posterior Tendon Dysfunction. The Foot, 19(4): 211-217.
  10. Kate Carter and Nachiappan Chockalingam (2009) An assessment of strapping techniques commonly used for pronated foot deformities. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 99(5):391-8. (IF: 0.654)
  11. Emma Cowley, TL Chevalier and N Chockalingam (2009) Effect of heel height on temporal parameters of gait: a review. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 99(6):512-8. (IF: 0.654)
  12. Bev Durrant and Nachiappan Chockalingam (2009) Functional Hallux Limitus- A review. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 99(3): 236-243. (IF: 0.654)
  13. Alfred Gatt and Nachiappan Chockalingam (2011) Clinical Assessment of Ankle Joint Dorsiflexion: A Review of Measurement Techniques. The Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association.101(1):59-69. (IF: 0.654)
  14. R Sloss, N Chockalingam, E Yule, DN Dunning, AD Pandyan (2009) Foot orthoses and Dental appliances – Is there a relationship? The Foot. 19(3):145-148.
  15. Negrini S, Minozzi S, Bettany-Saltikov J, Zaina F, Chockalingam N, Grivas TB, Kotwicki T, Maruyama T, Romano M and Vasiliadis ES (2010). Braces for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD006850. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006850.pub2. (IF: 5.912)
  16. Chevalier T L, Hodgins H and Chockalingam N (2010) Plantar Pressure measurements using an In-Shoe system and a Pressure Platform: A comparison. Gait and Posture. 31(3):397-399. (IF:2.752)
  17. Chevalier T L and Chockalingam N ( 2011) Effects of Foot Orthoses: How Important is the Practitioner? Gait and Posture. DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.10.356. 35(3):383-8. (IF:2.752))
  18. Nachiappan Chockalingam, Chatterley F, Healy A, Greenhalgh A and Branthwaite H R (2011) Comparison of pelvic complex kinematics during treadmill and overground walking. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2011.10.022. (IF: 2.655)
  19. Welsh BJ, Redmond AC, Chockalingam N, Keenan AM (2010) A case series study to explore the efficacy of foot orthoisis in treating first metatarsoplalangeal joint pain. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 3:17 doi:10.1186/1757-1146-3-17. (IF:1.46)
  20. Healy A, Chockalingam N and Dunning DN (2011) The effect of insole material and design on lower limb kinematics and plantar pressures during treadmill walking. Prosthetics and Orthotics International. 36(1):53-62. (IF:1.041)
  21. Romano M, Minozzi S, Bettany-Saltikov J, Zaina F, Chockalingam N, Kotwicki T, Maier-Hennes A and Negrini S. (2012) Exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.8:CD007837. (IF: 5.912)
  22. Naemi R, Chockalingam N. (2012) Development of a method for quantifying the midsole reaction model parameters. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 16 (12), pp. 1273-1277. DOI: 10.1080/10255842.2012.666795. (IF:1.77)
  23. Helen Branthwaite, Nachiappan Chockalingam, Sarah Grogan and Marc Jones (2012) Footwear choices made by young women and their potential impact on foot health. Journal of Health Psychology. 18 (11), pp. 1422-1431. DOI:10.1177/1359105312463585. (IF:1.748)
  24. Sarah Johnson, Helen R Branthwaite, Roozbeh Naemi and Nachiappan Chockalingam (2012) The effect of three different toe props on plantar pressure and patient comfort. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. 5:22 doi:10.1186/1757-1146-5-22. (IF:1.46)
  25. Healy A, Naemi R and Chockalingam N (2013) The effectiveness of footwear as an intervention to prevent diabetic foot ulceration or to reduce biomechanical risk factors for ulceration: a systematic review. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2013.03.001. (IF: 2.141)
  26. Naemi R and Chockalingam N (2013) Mathematical Models to Assess Foot-Ground Interaction: An Overview. in press. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. (IF: 4.431)
  27. Bettany-Saltikov J, Weiss H, Chockalingam N, Taranu R, Srinivas S, Hogg J, Whittaker V, Kalyan RV. Surgical versus non-surgical interventions in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD010663. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010663. (IF: 5.912)
  28. Needham R, Naemi R and Chockalingam N (2014) Quantifying lumbar-pelvis coordination during gait using a modified vector coding technique. Journal of Biomechanics. 47(16):3911-2. (IF: 3.031)
  29. Chatzistergos, P.E., Naemi, R., Sundar, L., Ramachandran, A. and Chockalingam, N., (2014) The relationship between the mechanical properties of heel-pad and common clinical measures associated with foot ulcers in patients with diabetes, Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications 28 (4), pp. 488-493 doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2014.03.011 (IF: 2.096)
  30. Panagiotis E. Chatzistergos, Roozbeh Naemi, Nachiappan Chockalingam (2014) An MRI compatible loading device for the reconstruction of clinically relevant plantar pressure distributions and loading scenarios of the foot. Medical Engineering and Physics. 36(9):1205-11. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2014.06.006. (IF: 2.375)
  31. Błażkiewicz Michalina, Lakshmi Sundar, Aoife Healy, Ambady Ramachandran, Nachiappan Chockalingam and Roozbeh Naemi (2014) Assessment of lower leg muscle force distribution during isometric ankle dorsi and plantar flexion in patients with diabetes: a pilot study. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. 29(2):282-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2014.10.007. (IF: 2.096)
  32. P.E. Chatzistergos, R. Naemi, N. Chockalingam (2015) A method for subject-specific modelling and optimisation of the cushioning properties of insole materials used in diabetic footwear.Medical Engineering and Physics. 37(6):531-8. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2015.03.009. (IF: 2.375)
  33. Aoife Healy, Roozbeh Naemi and Nachiappan Chockalingam (2014) The Effectiveness of Footwear and Other Removable Off-loading Devices in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Systematic Review. Current Diabetes Reviews. 10(4):215-30.
  34. Rucha Deshpande, Rajkumar Elagiri Ramalingam, Panagiotis Chatzistergos, Vinay Jasani, Nachiappan Chockalingam (2015) Semi-automated lung field segmentation in scoliosis radiographs: An exploratory study in press. Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering. (IF: 0.971)
  35. Robert Needham, Roozbeh Naemi, Aoife Healy and Nachiappan Chockalingam (2015) Multi-segment kinematic model to assess three dimensional movement of the spine and back during gait. Prosthetics & Orthotics International. pii: 0309364615579319.
  36. Gatt R, Wood MV, Gatt A, Zarb F, Formosa C, Azzopardi KM, Casha A, Agius TP, Schembri-Wismayer P, Attard L, Chockalingam N, Grima JN.Negative Poisson's ratios in tendons: An unexpected mechanical response. Acta Biomater. 2015 Jun 20. pii: S1742-7061(15)00287-1. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2015.06.018. (IF: 6.025)
  37. Sinclair, J, Naemi R, Chockalingam N, Hobbs, SJ, Taylor, P.J and Shore, H (2015) The effects of shoe temperature on the kinetics and kinematics of running. Footwear Science. DOI: 10.1080/19424280.2015.1084389.
  38. Robert Needham, Roozbeh Naemi and Nachiappan Chockalingam (2015) A new coordination pattern classification to assess gait kinematics when utilizing a modified vector coding technique. In press. Journal of Biomechanics. 48(12):3506-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.07.023 (IF: 3.031)
  39. Formosa C, Gatt A, Chockalingam N (2015) A Critical Evaluation of Existing Diabetes Foot Screening Guidelines. IThe Review of Diabetic Studies. 13(2-3):158-186. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2016.13.158 (IF:2.508)
  40. Harry J. Witchel, James K. Ackah, Carlos P. Santos, Carina E. Westling and Nachiappan Chockalingam (2016) Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition (NIMI) differentially suppresses head and thigh movements during screenic engagement: dependence on interaction Front. Psychol. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00157 (IF:2.56)
  41. Hill M, Naemi R, Branthwaite H, Chockalingam N (2017) The relationship between arch height and foot length: Implications for size grading. Appl Ergon. 2017 Mar;59(Pt A):243-250. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2016.08.012 (IF:2.107).
  42. R. Naemi,P. Chatzistergos, S. Suresh, L. Sundar, N. Chockalingam, A. Ramachandran (2017) Can plantar soft tissue mechanics enhance prognosis of diabetic foot ulcer? Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. (IF 3.352)
  43. Sara Behforootan, Panagiotis E. Chatzistergos, Nachiappan Chockalingam,Roozbeh Naemi (2017) A clinically applicable non-invasive method to quantitatively assess the visco-hyperelastic properties of human heel pad with implications for assessing the risk of mechanical trauma in press. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.02.011 (IF 3.152)
  44. Alfred Gatt, Owen Falzon, Kevin B. Cassar, Christian Ellul, Kenneth P. Camilleri, Jean Gauci, Stephen Mizzi, Anabelle Mizzi, Cassandra Sturgeon, Liberato Camilleri, Nachiappan Chockalingam and Cynthia Formosa (2018) Establishing differences in thermographic patterns between the various complications in diabetic foot disease. International Journal of Endocrinology. (IF 2.51)
  45. Aoife Healy, Sybil E Farmer, Anand D Pandyan, Nachiappan Chockalingam (2018) A systematic review of randomised controlled trials assessing effectiveness of prosthetic and orthotic intervions. PLoS ONE 13(3). DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0192094 ( IF 2.806)
  46. Sara Behforootan, Panagiotis E. Chatzistergos, Nachiappan Chockalingam, Aoife Healy, Roozbeh Naemi (2019) Localised pressure stimulation using turf‐like structures can improve skin perfusion in the foot. Microcirculation. (IF 2.797)
  47. Panagiotis Chatzistergos, A Ramachandran, Aoife Healy, Lakshmi Sundar, Nachiappan Chockalingam, Roozbeh Naemi (2019) The relationship between hallux grip force and balance in people with diabetes. in press. Gait and Posture.( IF 2.273)
  48. Roozbeh Naemi, Janet K. Lutale, Nachiappan Chockalingam, Zulfiqarali Abbas (2019) Can a combination of lifestyle and clinical characteristics explain the presence of foot ulcer in patients with diabetes? in press. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. (IF 2.792)
  49. Chatzistergos PE, Healy A, Balasubramanian G, Sundar L, Ramachandran A, Chockalingam N. Reliability and validity of an enhanced paper grip test; a simple clinical test for assessing lower limb strength. Gait & Posture. 2020 Jul 16.
  50. Chatzistergos, P. E., Ganniari-Papageorgiou, E., & Chockalingam, N. (2020). Comparative study of the strength characteristics of a novel wood-plastic composite and commonly used synthetic casting materials. Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 77, 105064.

Full list of publications (PDF, file size: 557KB) )




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