I joined Staffordshire University in 1982 after completing my MSc in Semiconductor Physics and Technology at Brunel University. Following that I obtained my PhD in Electronic Properties of Thin Films of Lead Phthalocyanine at Keele University. In 2001 I left to take up the Chair of Professor of General Engineering at the Technical University of Hamburg. In 2003 I returned to Staffordshire University to work as the Director of the Thin Films Laboratory. I was appointed . Elected Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology in 2012.
Professional memberships and activities
Elected Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology
Member of Engineering Gateways Advisory Group
Member of Practice Transfer Partnership Engineering Council
- PhD Electonic Properties of Thin Films of Organic Semiconductor
- MSc SemiConductor Physics and Technology
- Experimental Physics
- Electronic Material & Thin Films Technology
Electrical and transport properties of thin films of organic semiconductors have extensively been investigated for device applications such as sensors, TFTs, OLEDs, and photovoltaic technology. Applications of polymers in such devices prompted considerable interest amongst research communities. Polymers can be synthesised with tailored physical and chemical properties increasing the number of potentially useful material for energy conversion. Lower temperature requirements associated with fabrication techniques (spin coating, spray prolaysis and rolling) of this material reduces the cost of manufacturing, balancing poorer efficiencies resulting from lower carrier mobility, and problems associated with exciton dissociations. Recent advances in material process and selection based on blend of conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives have shown promising photovoltaic efficiencies. Amongst blended material, poly (3-Hexyl Thiophene) (P3HT) and Phenyl-C61-Butyric acid Methyl ester (PCBM) proved to be promising. Since the early 1980s I have conducted various research projects concerning the characterisation of small molecule such as metal substituted Phthalocyanine, polymers and methods of device fabrications.
Main Research Projects
Currently I am leading a team working on:
- Photovoltaic properties of blend of P3HT: PCBM
- Photovoltaic properties of small organic molecule solar cells.
Enterprise and commercial interests
Organic solar cells
Our newly built laboratory is situated in Stoke-on-Trent near to the railway station and easily accessible by our research collaborators.
The Thin Films laboratory is well equipped with modern instrumentation for electrical, optical and structural investigations. Furthermore our research Institute (Centre for Energy Efficient Systems) is working very closely with the department of Chemistry for material synthesis and has access to a range of analytical, structural and spectroscopic equipment. Our Engineering Faculty includes a team of experienced academics focussing their attention on incorporating solar cells for system engineering and commercialisation.
Currently I am leading MSc. Work Based Learning awards
- MSc Advanced Technology
- MSc Professional Engineering
My Teaching commitments are
- Photovoltaic Technology
- Electronic Principles
- Instrumentations and Measurements
- Plastic Electronics
Recent Publications (also available online)
- T. S. Shafai. Schottky barrier characterization of Lead phthalocyanine/Aluminium interfaces, Accepted for publication in the Journal of Thin Solid Films 2008
- T. S. Shafai and R.D. Gould, Low frequency capacitance measurements of triclinic lead phthalocyanine: Effects of oxygen doping and thermal annealing, Journal of Thin Solid Films 516, 383-387. 2007
- T. S. Shafai and R.D. Gould, Measurements and Modelling of the DC Temperature Dependence of Electrical Conductivity in Thin Films of Lead Phthalocyanine, Journal of Thin Solid Films 515, 1138, 2006
- Thomas D. Anthopoulos, T.S.Shafai, Low frequency capacitance characterization of phase nickel phthalocyanine/lead interfaces: effects of temperature and oxygen doping, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 65, 1345-1348, 2004
- T. D. Anthopoulos and T. S. Shafai., Alternating current conduction properties of thermally evaporated a-nickel phthalocyanine thin films: Effects of oxygen doping and thermal annealing. J. Appl. Phys 94, No 5, Sep.2003
- T. D. Anthopoulos and T. S. Shafai., Oxygen induced p-doping of a-nickel phthalocyanine vacuum sublimed films: Implications for its use in photovoltaic, Applied Physics Letters 82 No 10 pp 1628-1630, March 2003
- T. D. Anthopoulos and T. S. Shafai, Barrier determination of nickel phthalocyanine/lead Schottky diodes by capacitance-voltage measurements, Accepted for publications in J. Phys. Chem. Sol., March 2003
- T. D. Anthopoulos and T. S. Shafai, Electrical properties of ?-nickel phthalocyanine/ aluminium interfaces: effects of oxygen doping and thermal annealing, J. Phys. Chem. Sol., 2003, 1217-1223
- T. D. Anthopoulos and T. S. Shafai, Influence of oxygen doping on the electrical and photovoltaic properties of organic Schottky type solar cells. Thin Solid Films, 441,207, 2003
- T. D. Anthopoulos and T. S. Shafai, Effects of temperature on electronic properties of nickel phthalocyanine thin sandwich film structures, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (A) 20(2), Mar/Apr 2002.
- T. S. Shafai and T. D. Anthopoulos, Junction properties of nickel phthalocyanine thin film devices utilizing gold and indium electrodes, Thin Solid Films 389-399 (2001) 361
- T. D. Anthopoulos and T. S. Shafai, Junction properties of nickel phthalocyanine thin sandwich film structures using dissimilar electrodes, Physica Status Solidi (a) 186(1) (2001) 89
- R.D. Gould, and T. S. Shafai, Conduction in lead phthalocyanine films with aluminium electrodes, Thin Solid Films 373, 89-93, (2000)
- T. D. Anthopoulos and T. S. Shafai, SCLC Measurements in nickel phthalocyanine thin films, Physica Status Solidi (a) 181(2) (2000) 569
- T. D. Anthopoulos and T. S. Shafai, Sequential turret source-masking system for fabrication of multilayer structures, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (A) 18 (2000) 2595