Mummification has been practiced in Sicily since the Middle Ages and has attracted much attention from researchers. However, previous studies have principally focused on adult mummies, whilst mummies belonging to children have largely been overlooked. This is problematic as juveniles have much to tell us about societal values, identity, and roles and responsibilities within society. This research will start to rectify this imbalance by examining forty-one children afforded mummification in the Capuchin Catacombs in Palermo (Sicily). The aim of this research is to better understand the health, development, and social identity of children afforded this mortuary rite in late modern (A.D. 1787-1880) Palermo. A portable digital direct x-ray machine will be used to facilitate age and/or sex estimation of the children, and to identify pathological lesions, stress indicators, and developmental defects, which is not possible without non-invasive imaging. The results obtained from radiological analyses will be compared with the children’s outfits, associated funerary artefacts, mummification type, and surviving documentation. It is hoped this unique research project will shed new light on the children that inhabited late modern Palermo, and the way in which they were perceived and treated by adults in life and death.